What is Cervical Cancer Surgery?
Cervical cancer surgery is a crucial treatment option for women diagnosed with cervical cancer. The main goal of surgery is to remove the cancerous cells from the cervix and surrounding tissues to achieve complete tumor removal. The surgical approach recommended depends on the stage of cancer, the size, and location of the tumor, and the woman’s overall health. Cervical cancer surgery can range from less invasive procedures like conization to more extensive surgeries like radical hysterectomy or pelvic exenteration.
Conization (Cervical Cone Biopsy):
Conization is a less invasive surgical procedure that involves removing a cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix containing abnormal cells or early-stage cancer. It is often used for diagnosing and treating precancerous lesions or early-stage cervical cancer. Conization is typically performed when the cancer is confined to a small area of the cervix and has not spread beyond the cervix. This procedure allows for a more targeted removal of abnormal tissue, preserving the rest of the cervix.
Radical trachelectomy is a fertility-preserving surgery performed on young women with early-stage cervical cancer who wish to preserve their ability to conceive and carry a pregnancy. During this procedure, the cervix is removed along with the upper part of the vagina and nearby lymph nodes. The uterus is preserved, allowing women to conceive through assisted reproductive techniques. Radical trachelectomy is a specialized surgery that requires careful patient selection and is usually reserved for small, early-stage tumors.
Radical Hysterectomy also called Wertheim’s Hysterectomy is a more extensive surgery performed for early-stage cervical cancer, where the cancer has not spread beyond the cervix. During a radical hysterectomy, the surgeon removes the entire uterus, including the cervix, part of the vagina, and nearby tissues, including the parametrium and pelvic lymph nodes. This surgery aims to remove the cancer while preserving surrounding organs like the bladder and rectum. Radical hysterectomy is more commonly performed when the tumor is larger or extends into the surrounding tissues.
Pelvic exenteration is a highly complex and radical surgery performed in rare cases of advanced cervical cancer that has spread to nearby organs or structures. During this procedure, the surgeon removes the uterus, cervix, vagina, and nearby lymph nodes, along with adjacent organs like the bladder, rectum, or portions of the bowel. Pelvic exenteration is a last-resort option when other treatments have not been effective, and the cancer has extensively invaded neighboring structures. This surgery significantly impacts a woman’s quality of life and is only considered in carefully selected cases.
Minimally Invasive Cervical Cancer Surgery:
In recent years, minimally invasive surgical techniques, such as laparoscopy or robotic-assisted surgery, have been used for certain cervical cancer surgeries. These approaches involve smaller incisions, reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and faster recovery times compared to traditional open surgery. However, the use of minimally invasive surgery for cervical cancer may depend on the stage and size of the tumor, as well as the surgeon’s expertise. Not all cases are suitable for minimally invasive surgery, and decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis.
Recovery and Follow-Up Care:
Recovery from cervical cancer surgery depends on the type of procedure performed and the extent of the surgery. Women may experience some discomfort, pain, and vaginal bleeding after surgery, which can be managed with pain medications and proper wound care. Hospital stays following surgery can range from a few days to a week, depending on the extent of the surgery and the individual’s post-operative recovery.
After surgery, women are advised to avoid heavy lifting and strenuous activities for a few weeks to allow for proper healing. Regular follow-up appointments with the gynecologic oncologist are essential to monitor the patient’s progress and address any potential complications.
As with any surgical procedure, cervical cancer surgery carries certain risks and potential complications, including:
- Infection: Surgical site infections or infections of the urinary or reproductive tracts may occur after surgery.
- Bleeding: Intraoperative or postoperative bleeding may require additional interventions or blood transfusions.
- Damage to Surrounding Organs: Depending on the extent of the surgery, there is a slight risk of damage to nearby organs, such as the bladder or intestines.
- Lymphedema: Removal of lymph nodes during surgery can lead to lymphedema, a condition characterized by swelling in the legs or other affected areas.
- Infertility: Some surgical procedures may result in infertility, particularly if the uterus is removed.
- Early Menopause: In some cases, removal of the ovaries (bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) during hysterectomy may result in early menopause, leading to hormone-related symptoms.
Cervical Cancer Surgery Clinic:
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Our Centre's for Cervical Cancer Surgery
One can visit any of our branches that are nearby to your location for the best Cervical Cancer Surgery. Our experts not only provide superior quality care using the latest technologies but also provide complete treatment along with rehabilitation facilities and post-operative care.