What is Breast Cancer Surgery?
Breast cancer surgery is a common and crucial treatment option for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer. The main goal of surgery is to remove the cancerous tumor from the breast while preserving as much healthy breast tissue as possible. The type of surgery recommended depends on factors such as the tumor size, location, stage of cancer, the presence of other medical conditions, and the patient’s preferences.
Types of Breast Cancer?
- Lumpectomy (Breast-Conserving Surgery): This procedure involves removing the tumor and a surrounding margin of healthy tissue while sparing the rest of the breast. A lumpectomy is typically followed by radiation therapy to help reduce the risk of cancer recurrence. It is an appropriate option for early-stage breast cancer when the tumor is relatively small compared to the overall breast size.
- Mastectomy: A mastectomy involves the complete removal of the breast tissue. There are different types of mastectomy, including:
a. Total or Simple Mastectomy: Removal of the entire breast, including the nipple and areola. b. Modified Radical Mastectomy: Removal of the entire breast along with the underlying chest muscles and some lymph nodes in the armpit (axillary lymph nodes). c. Skin-Sparing Mastectomy: Removal of breast tissue while preserving the overlying skin, making breast reconstruction easier. d. Nipple-Sparing Mastectomy: Removal of breast tissue while preserving the nipple-areola complex, which is beneficial for cosmetic outcomes and breast reconstruction.
- Axillary Lymph Node Dissection/Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy: In some cases, the surgeon may also remove nearby lymph nodes to determine if cancer has spread beyond the breast. This information is crucial for staging and planning further treatment.
- Breast Reconstruction: For patients who undergo mastectomy, breast reconstruction may be an option to restore the breast’s appearance. Reconstruction can be done using implants or the patient’s tissue from another part of their body (autologous reconstruction).
- Oncoplastic Surgery: Oncoplastic surgery combines cancer removal with plastic surgery techniques to achieve better cosmetic outcomes while ensuring complete tumor removal. It is typically used in cases where a large portion of breast tissue needs to be removed, and it helps to reshape and reposition the remaining breast tissue to maintain symmetry and appearance.
- Hidden Scar Surgery: This approach aims to minimize visible scarring by making incisions in inconspicuous locations, such as along the breast crease or around the areola. Hidden scar surgery are usually performed for lumpectomies, providing women with a less noticeable scar after surgery.
- Nipple Areola Complex (NAC) Sparing Mastectomy: In selected cases, it is possible to preserve the nipple-areola complex during a mastectomy. This approach is most suitable when the tumor is located away from the nipple and areola and there is no evidence of cancer involvement in this area. Preserving the NAC allows for improved cosmetic outcomes and may enhance post-surgery emotional well-being.
- Prophylactic Mastectomy: In high-risk individuals with a strong family history of breast cancer or genetic mutations (e.g., BRCA1 or BRCA2), prophylactic mastectomy may be considered. This elective surgery involves removing both breasts to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer in the future.
- Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomy (CPM): CPM involves removing the unaffected breast in addition to the affected breast, even if cancer is present in only one breast. This procedure is a personal choice and is not always medically necessary, but some women opt for it to reduce their anxiety about future breast cancer risk.
- Margin Enhancement Techniques: In some cases, after a lumpectomy, the pathology report may indicate that the surgical margins are not clear of cancer cells. To ensure complete tumor removal, additional margin enhancement techniques may be used, such as a re-excision or intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT).
- Nipple reconstruction surgery:– In cases where the nipple areolar complex has been removed, the same can be artificially reconstructed using local flaps and tattooing. This is done to emulate the pre surgical nipple areolar complex. Our team are experts at these forms of advanced reconstruction surgeries.
Breast cancer surgery is often just one part of the overall treatment plan. Depending on the cancer’s characteristics and stage, additional therapies may be recommended, including radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. Recovery after breast cancer surgery varies depending on the type and extent of the procedure. Patients may experience some discomfort, swelling, and temporary limitations in arm movement after surgery. Support from healthcare professionals, including physical therapists, can aid in a smoother recovery. It is essential for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer to work closely with a multidisciplinary medical team that includes surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and other specialists. Together, they can develop a comprehensive treatment plan tailored to the individual’s needs, ensuring the best possible outcome and quality of life. Regular follow-up care and screening are crucial for monitoring and managing any potential recurrence or side effects.
Breast Cancer Surgery Hospitals:
We provide the best healthcare facilities for Breast Cancer Surgery. Our multispecialty clinics are situated in the following locations:
Our Centre's for Breast Cancer Surgery in Mumbai:
One can visit any of our branches that are nearby to your location for the best full-mouth rehabilitation. Our experts not only provide superior quality care using the latest technologies but also provide complete treatment along with rehabilitation facilities and post-operative care.