What is Parathyroid Cancer?

Parathyroid cancer originates in one of your endocrine system’s four parathyroid glands. Parathyroid cancer is a rare and severe kind of cancer that attacks the parathyroid glands, which are tiny glands in the neck near the thyroid gland. These glands are in charge of controlling calcium levels in the body. Parathyroid cancer develops when cells in the parathyroid glands expand uncontrollably, resulting in the creation of malignant tumors. Because of its rarity and resemblance to benign parathyroid tumors, this kind of cancer is difficult to identify and cure. To control the illness and improve patient outcomes, parathyroid cancer frequently necessitates a multidisciplinary strategy that includes surgery, radiation therapy, and targeted therapies. The most frequent type of treatment for parathyroid cancer is surgery.

Different Types of Parathyroid Cancer

Parathyroid cancer is classified into two types. The more frequent of the two kinds occur when cancer cells force your parathyroid gland to create and release an excessive amount of parathyroid hormone (PTH), raising calcium levels in your blood caused by overactive PTH.

Non-functioning (also known as non-secreting) parathyroid carcinoma (cancer) is another kind of parathyroid cancer. Non-functioning parathyroid cancer differs from the more prevalent kind in that patients do not have elevated levels of parathyroid hormone and calcium in their blood. Non-functioning parathyroid carcinoma is exceedingly uncommon, accounting for fewer than 10% of all parathyroid cancer cases.

Following a diagnosis of parathyroid cancer, additional tests are performed to identify whether the disease is localized (found in one location), metastatic (the cancer cells have moved to another region of your body), or recurrent (the cancer returns after therapy). For parathyroid cancer, doctors do not employ the four-stage naming scheme that is typically used for other forms of cancer.

Causes of Parathyroid Cancer

  • The cause of parathyroid carcinoma is unknown.
  • The following rare genetic diseases (inherited from a family member) are risk factors for parathyroid cancer.
  • MEN1 is a form of multiple endocrine neoplasia.
  • FIHP (familial isolated hyperparathyroidism).
  • Syndrome of hyperparathyroidism with jaw tumor.
  • Radiation therapy for your head or neck in the past can potentially raise your chance of developing parathyroid cancer.

Symptoms of Parathyroid Cancer

The majority of the symptoms of parathyroid carcinoma are really hypercalcemia-related symptoms.

Hypercalcemia symptoms and indicators include:

  • The need to urinate more often than normal (frequent urination).
  • Having more thirst than normal.
  • Vomiting and nausea.
  • Loss of appetite
  • Constipation.
  • Fatigue.
  • Depression
  • Memory loss or forgetfulness.
  • Aches, weakness, and/or cramping in the muscles.

Other signs of parathyroid cancer may include:

  • A lump in the throat.
  • Having vocal changes or hoarseness.
  • Having difficulty swallowing.

How is Parathyroid Cancer Diagnosed?

Prior to the surgery to remove your overactive parathyroid gland, you may undergo the following tests and procedures:

  • Blood calcium test
  • PTH (parathyroid hormone) blood test.
  • Thyroid scan (usually a radioactive Sestamibi scan and/or a CT scan).

If you’ve been diagnosed with parathyroid cancer, you may be subjected to the following imaging tests to assess whether the disease has spread (metastasized) to other regions of your body:

CT (computerized tomography) scan: A CT scan produces multiple 3D (three-dimensional) pictures of your body using X-rays and a computer.

MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): MRI creates detailed pictures of your body using a huge magnet, radio waves, and a computer. It does not employ X-rays (radiation).

Treatment of Parathyroid Cancer

The major treatment option for parathyroid cancer is surgery to remove the malignant parathyroid gland (en bloc resection). If parathyroid cancer has spread (metastasized), your surgeon may also need to remove tissue around your parathyroid gland or malignant tissues elsewhere in your body.

En-bloc resection means that your surgeon will remove your whole parathyroid gland as well as the capsule that surrounds it. Your surgeon may also need to remove half of your thyroid gland and associated tissues, muscle, and nerves on the same side as the malignant parathyroid gland.

Tumour debulking entails removing as much of the tumor as feasible. Some tumors cannot be removed entirely.
Metastasectomy: Cancer that has spread (metastasized) to other tissues and/or organs in your body, such as your lung, will be removed by your surgeon.

Parathyroid Cancer Clinic:

We provide the best healthcare facilities for Parathyroid Cancer patients. Our multispeciality clinics are situated in the following locations:

Our Main Centre for Parathyroid Cancer Treatment in Dadar, Mumbai

Our Centres for Parathyroid Cancer Treatment in Mumbai

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Byculla Branch

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Marine Lines Branch

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Dadar Branch

One can visit any of our branches that are nearby to your location for the best overall healthcare treatment of Parathyroid Cancer. Our experts not only provide superior quality care using the latest technologies but also provide complete treatment along with rehabilitation facilities and post-operative care.