What is Parathyroid Cancer?
Parathyroid cancer is an extremely rare type of cancer that affects the parathyroid glands. The parathyroid glands are small, pea-sized glands located near or attached to the thyroid gland in the neck. These glands are responsible for regulating calcium levels in the body. When parathyroid cancer is diagnosed, surgery is the primary treatment option.
Parathyroid cancer surgery aims to remove the cancerous tissue while preserving normal parathyroid function and nearby structures in the neck. The extent of the surgery may vary depending on the size and location of the tumor, the involvement of adjacent tissues, and the individual patient’s overall health
Some key points about parathyroid cancer surgery:
- Complete Tumor Resection: The primary goal of surgery is to achieve a complete resection of the tumor with negative margins. This means removing all cancerous tissue along with a margin of normal tissue around it to minimize the risk of cancer recurrence.
- Surgical Approach: The surgical approach used for parathyroid cancer is typically an open-neck exploration. In this procedure, an incision is made in the neck, and the surgeon carefully examines the area to locate and remove the affected parathyroid gland(s) and any surrounding cancerous tissue. Latest advancement include endoscopic resection and micro incision based surgeries which are cosmetically more appealing.
- Lymph Node Dissection: In some cases, parathyroid cancer may spread to nearby lymph nodes. Therefore, the surgeon may perform a lymph node dissection to remove and examine these lymph nodes to determine if they contain cancer cells.
- Intraoperative Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Monitoring: During surgery, the surgeon may use intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring to assess the functionality of the parathyroid glands. This involves taking blood samples before and after tumor removal to ensure that the remaining parathyroid glands are functioning adequately.
- Potential Complications: Parathyroid cancer surgery carries some risks, including damage to surrounding structures in the neck, such as the recurrent laryngeal nerves responsible for vocal cord function. Careful surgical technique and the use of nerve monitoring can help reduce the risk of complications.
- Preoperative Evaluation: Before surgery, comprehensive preoperative evaluation is crucial to assess the extent of the disease and to determine the best surgical approach. This evaluation may include imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scans, and, in some cases, nuclear medicine scans like sestamibi scans to localize the tumor.
- Pathology Examination: A thorough examination of the tumor tissue by a pathologist is essential to confirm the diagnosis of parathyroid cancer. A definitive diagnosis is crucial, as parathyroid cancer has distinct characteristics that differentiate it from benign parathyroid conditions.
- Genetic Testing: In some cases, genetic testing may be recommended, especially for individuals with a family history of parathyroid cancer or certain genetic syndromes associated with an increased risk of developing this cancer.
- Post-Surgery Management: After surgery, the patient’s calcium levels and parathyroid hormone levels are closely monitored to ensure that calcium regulation is appropriately maintained. In some cases, patients may require calcium and vitamin D supplements initially, and long-term hormone replacement therapy may be necessary if multiple parathyroid glands were removed or damaged during the surgery.
- Follow-Up Care: Regular follow-up visits with the medical team are crucial to monitor the patient’s recovery and assess for any signs of cancer recurrence. Imaging studies and blood tests may be performed during follow-up visits to detect any potential recurrence.
- Multidisciplinary Approach: Parathyroid cancer is a rare and complex condition that requires a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals for optimal management. Surgeons, endocrinologists, oncologists, radiologists, and pathologists collaborate to plan the most effective treatment strategy tailored to the individual patient’s needs.
- Recurrence and Surveillance: Parathyroid cancer has a higher recurrence rate compared to most other thyroid or parathyroid conditions. Regular follow-up and surveillance are essential to detect any signs of recurrence or metastasis. Patients may undergo periodic imaging studies, blood tests, and physical examinations during follow-up visits.
- Adjuvant Treatments: Parathyroid cancer is generally not responsive to traditional chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Therefore, adjuvant treatments are typically not a primary component of treatment. However, in some cases of advanced or metastatic disease, targeted therapies or clinical trials may be considered.
- Emotional Support: Coping with a rare cancer diagnosis can be emotionally challenging for patients and their families. Access to emotional support resources and joining support groups can help individuals navigate their journey and cope with the physical and emotional aspects of their condition.
- Second Opinion: Due to the complexity and rarity of parathyroid cancer, seeking a second opinion from a specialized medical center with expertise in endocrine cancers can provide valuable insights and additional treatment options
It’s important to note that parathyroid cancer is exceptionally rare, and most cases involving abnormal parathyroid function are due to benign conditions, such as parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia. These benign conditions are typically managed differently than parathyroid cancer.
parathyroid cancer surgery is the primary treatment option for parathyroid cancer. The surgery aims to remove the cancerous tissue while preserving normal parathyroid function and adjacent structures in the neck. The extent of the surgery depends on the tumor’s characteristics and the patient’s overall health. Close monitoring and follow-up care are essential to ensure optimal outcomes for patients with this rare form of cancer.
Parathyroid Cancer Surgery Hospitals:
We provide the best healthcare facilities for Parathyroid Cancer Surgery. Our multispeciality clinics are situated in the following locations:
Our Centres for Oral Rehabilitation with Implants
One can visit any of our branches nearby to your location for the best overall healthcare treatment of Parathyroid Cancer Surgery. Our experts not only provide superior quality care using the latest technologies but also provide complete treatment along with rehabilitation facilities and post-operative care.