The alveolus consist of two main entities, the lower alveolus which is contiguous with the mandible and the upper alveolus which is contiguous with the maxilla and the floor of the nasal cavity. Majority of pathologies in the region include malignancies of the jaw and trauma related issues. Early signs include bleeding during brushing teeth and loosening of teeth. Later signs include ulceration and maybe even fracture. Treatment mostly includes surgical resection with adequate margin and reconstruction with plastic surgery, usually using a fibula flap for the lower jaw. Upper jaw lesions are more complex and include possibly prosthetic reconstruction to maintain the oronasal barrier.
Poor dental hygiene is the most common cause for this with chronic caries, alcohol abuse and tobacco consumption being potentiating factors.
Always befriend your dentist and get regular checkups for the sake of your health and hygiene.